A diaphragm is a birth control method with a medium failure rate. It's a soft rubber dome that fits over the cervix – the neck of the womb. It blocks sperm from getting into the womb. It works best if used with a spermicide.
You have to be examined by a doctor to get the right size to fit your cervix. Rhis requires a pelvic exam, as the need for a pelvic exam may be a factor for some women (especially adolescents) when choosing a method.
After that, you put the diaphragm in yourself before you have sex. Using it is similar to putting in a female condom.
You will need to regularly test your diaphragm for leaks; if there are any, it will decrease its effectiveness.
You will need to leave your diaphragm in for at least six hours after having sex, but no longer than 24 hours. If you have sex again during this period, apply more spermicide before having intercourse.
You will have to put in your diaphragm before you are going to have sex. Ideally before you even get aroused, to allow for good placement.
Diaphragms can be a bit tricky to use, which is why with typical use, it’s 88 per cent effective.
The true diaphragm failure rates are higher (16% in perfect use and 17% in typical use when used with spermicides, as recommended). These rates are higher than for those for natural family planning, which is characterized as having a “high failure rate.”
The WHO groups male condoms, fertility awareness methods/natural family planning, and diaphragm into one tier (second lowest efficacy), and female condoms, spermicides, and withdrawal into a separate tier (lowest efficacy)
Birth control sponge
It's a soft foam disc with a spermicide which you insert into the vagina.
The sponge stops sperm from getting into the womb while the spermicide also kills the sperm. You have to use a new sponge each time you have sex, and it does not protect against STDs.
Both these methods aren’t readily available in India.